This post about entity conversion is an expanded version of an answer that I provided on Quora yesterday. (How do I convert a Delaware LLC to a California LLC?)
In my experience, entity conversion typically occurs for either, or both, of the following reasons.
- The need to convert a limited liability company (LLC) to a corporation to accept an investment from an institutional investor, such as a venture capitalist.
- The need to move an entity from one state to another. This typically occurs because the founder relocates, or because an investor prefers to invest in a Delaware corporation.
Several weeks ago, I wrote about how to issue LLC membership interests. In this post, I am addressing how a small corporation should issue corporate shares.
To start, one must examine the Certificate of Incorporation (Delaware) or Articles of Incorporation (California) to determine the maximum number of shares that may be issued. (To simplify this discussion, I will assume that only one class of common shares has been authorized.) A corporation may not issue more shares than are authorized. (more…)
This post addresses how one may move an existing corporation to another state. It is based on a question that I answered on Quora (What state is best to incorporate an S-corp if you plan on moving away?).
I find that for most entrepreneurs, it makes sense to incorporate in the state where the entrepreneur resides. As I wrote in In which State should My Startup Incorporate?
Incorporate in the state in which you are doing business, unless there is a good reason to do otherwise [in which case the other state chosen probably will be Delaware]. (more…)
This post addresses a generalized version of a question that I answered on Quora concerning committees of corporate boards of directors. Q. Who appoints the members of a board committee?
A. Appointment of board committee members is governed by the corporation’s bylaws, or by applicable statutes if there are no bylaws. In my experience, bylaws (or statutes) state that a board committee is appointed by a majority of the board members. Committees are not appointed by the CEO or the Chair of the Board. (more…)
This post is based on a question that I answered on Quora: What happens if you do not file a Limited Offering Exemption Notice in California?
Limited Offering Exemption Notice Requirement
I first addressed the Limited Offering Exemption Notice in Section 25102 (f) – Securities Law Compliance if You Incorporate in California. As that post explains, LOEN filing is required for corporate share issuances that are exempt from securities registration requirements in California.
Future services seem like a great no-cost way to buy equity in a startup. In California, however, whether you legally can buy equity with future services depends on whether the startup is a corporation or a limited liability company (LLC).
Corporations Code Section 409(a)(1) specifies the types of “consideration” that can be paid for corporate shares. These include, for example, “money paid; labor done; [and] services actually rendered to the corporation or for its benefit or in its formation or reorganization”.
However, “neither promissory notes of the purchaser [subject to certain exceptions] nor future services shall constitute payment or part payment for shares of the corporation“. So a California corporation cannot grant shares in exchange for future services.
This post is based on a question I have seen online many times. Q. Can I have a corporation with multiple businesses?
A. Yes, you can have a corporation with multiple businesses. Furthermore, those businesses need not be similar or related. So, for example, your corporation might do both software development and per sitting.
However, there is a more important question. Should you have a corporation with multiple businesses?
In Directors’ Inspection Rights Include (Almost) Anything in California, I discussed corporate directors’ inspection rights. Quoting California Corporations Code Section 1602, I noted that directors have an “absolute right” to inspect corporate records and physical properties. This post explains that in enforcing inspection rights, “absolute” is not really “absolute”.
The fundamental limitation, established in case law, is that a director may not use inspection rights to harm the corporation. (more…)
Officers conduct a corporation’s day-to-day business. Among the states, California law is unique in its set of required officers.
California Corporations Code Section 312(a) states that each California corporation must have:
- A chairman of the board or a president or both;
- A secretary; and
- A chief financial officer.
Additional officers are optional.
That Code section also provides that the president is the chief executive officer of the corporation, unless the articles of incorporation or the bylaws state otherwise.
Other states typically take an approach similar to that specified in Delaware General Corporation Law Section 142 (emphasis added):