Foreign qualification is how a given state permits an entity, such as a corporation or limited liability company, from elsewhere to do business in that state. In this context, “foreign” can mean from another state or from a different country.
Recently, one of my international clients formed a corporation in Delaware. We have been qualifying that corporation to do business in about a dozen other states. This post explains how easy, or how difficult, various states makes the foreign qualification process.(more…)
This post discusses why – especially now that Assembly Bill No. 5 (AB-5) has taken effect – in California corporate officers are considered employees rather than independent contractors.
California Corporate Officers Employees by Statute
The starting point is California Unemployment Insurance Code Section 621. This Section states, in relevant part:
“Employee” means all of the following:
(a) Any officer of a corporation.
This post about corporate stakeholders is based largely on my answer to a Quora question. Please see How many companies do you think will adopt the Business Roundtable’s statement that the purpose of a corporation is to take into account ALL stakeholders
The Business Roundtable describes itself as an association of chief executive officers of America’s leading companies. On August 19, 2019, the Roundtable garnered headlines when it announced that it had redefined the purpose of a corporation to promote an economy that serves all Americans. In my opinion, that characterization is not accurate.
Roundtable Statement about Stakeholders…
Here is what the relevant portion of the Roundtable’s Statement on the Purpose of a Corporation says:(more…)
In How Can I Move My Corporation to Another State?, I discussed redomestication, i.e., how to move a legal entity from one state to another. In this post, I explain how to redomesticate an entity when the existing state’s law prohibits redomestication.
California Corporation Cannot Redomesticate
About a year ago, the CEO of a California corporation contacted me. He was relocating to Pennsylvania, so it made sense to move his corporation there, too. Unfortunately, California does not permit its corporations, in contrast to limited liability companies (LLCs), to redomesticate. (Please see the CA Secretary of State’s Conversion Information page.)(more…)
This post discusses whether founders should authorize preferred shares, in addition to common shares, when they incorporate.
As I discussed in What is Preferred Stock?, corporations typically issue preferred shares to institutional investors, such as venture capitalists (VCs). The term “preferred” refers to preferences that those shares have relative to common shares.(more…)
People typically think about corporate board members having equal voting rights: One director, one vote. However, for Delaware corporations, that is not always the case.
Delaware Statute – Board Members
This unusual situation is the result of a Delaware statute. (more…)
Several years ago, I wrote about stockholder inspection rights. (See Which Financial Information Must a Corporation Provide to its Shareholders? ) This post explains how stockholders of a Delaware corporation can waive inspection rights.
Delaware General Corporation Law Section 220 gives stockholders a right to “inspect for any proper purpose, and to make copies and extracts from…[t]he corporation’s stock ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and records”. Furthermore, “proper purpose” means “a purpose reasonably related to such person’s interest as a stockholder.” (more…)
This post discusses the process by which a corporation may declare a dividend. This is part of Dana Shultz’s Canonical Questions on the Law™ series of questions and answers about legal issues, concepts and terminology.
Please note that this post assumes that the corporation will pay a cash dividend to its shareholders. If, instead, the corporation wishes to pay a stock dividend (issue more shares to existing shareholders), then somewhat different rules will apply. (more…)
In an earlier post, In Delaware, No Par Value Can Cost a Bundle, I discussed the two methods by which Delaware’s franchise tax for a corporation may be calculated. This post discusses the history of those two methods.
To some extent, this post is educated guesswork. It is based on a Quora question that I answered. Please see What is the rationale/reason (not math) behind the two methods of calculation for Delaware’s domestic franchise tax fee?
Recently, two different individuals emailed me about their desire to form and run a legal entity while remaining anonymous.
I had to tell them that they could not achieve their objective. This post explains why that is the case.
Initial Formation is Easy
It is easy for a founder to be anonymous when taking the first step to form a corporation or a limited liability company (LLC). (more…)