This post discusses why – especially now that Assembly Bill No. 5 (AB-5) has taken effect – in California corporate officers are considered employees rather than independent contractors.
California Corporate Officers Employees by Statute
The starting point is California Unemployment Insurance Code Section 621. This Section states, in relevant part:
“Employee” means all of the following:
(a) Any officer of a corporation.
This post describes California employees’ rights to inspect, and receive copies of, their personnel records.
The relevant statute is California Labor Code Section 1198.5(a), which states:
Every current and former employee, or his or her representative, has the right to inspect and receive a copy of the personnel records that the employer maintains relating to the employee’s performance or to any grievance concerning the employee.
It is common knowledge that California generally prohibits post-employment non-compete provisions. However, people know far less about law pertaining to post-employment non-solicitation provisions.
In this post, I will describe existing post-employment non-compete and non-solicitation case law. Then I will discuss a recent case that may signal a new direction.
Background – Non-competition Provisions Disfavored
This post discusses a recent decision by which the California Supreme Court adopted the so-called ABC Test for misclassification of employees as independent contractors.
At-will employment permits either an employer or an employee to terminate their relationship at any time for almost any reason. This post explains why at-will employment is the norm in the U.S.
I am basing this post on a Quora question that I answered recently. Please see Why are labour laws governing companies almost non existent in North America, compared to Europe? (more…)
This post is about employment law. It is directed particularly to people from other countries who are not familiar with U.S. employment practices.
It is based on my answer to a Quora question. Please see What are the most important aspects of American labor law that a foreigner trying to make a terrestrial logistics company in (any state of) the U.S. should take into consideration?
I am providing this answer based on my experience helping dozens of international clients conduct businesses in the U.S.
Moonlighting employees in California have a right to hold down their second jobs (or to work on startups in their spare time).
The right to moonlight – and to engage in other activities on one’s own time – is expressed in Labor Code Section 96(k).
Labor Code Section 96
Section 96 identifies, generally, the types of employee claims that the California Labor Commissioner is obligated to accept. These include, for example, claims pertaining to payment of wages and expenses; damages arising from misrepresented conditions of employment; claims for vacation pay; and awards for workers’ compensation benefits.
Moonlighting is addressed as follows. (more…)
Because of the DTSA, trade secret misappropriation suits with an interstate component now can be filed in federal court. For more information about civil and criminal enforcement, please see Trade Secrets Receive Federal Protection. (more…)
In California, a “work made for hire” (WMFH) provision in a contract can convert a contractor to an employee. This post describes the statutory basis for this little-known area of the law.
Before providing details, I will note that the (likely unwanted) ability to convert a contractor to an employee will arise only under narrowly-defined circumstances.
- The independent contractor must be an individual rather than a legal entity (a corporation or limited liability company).
- The relevant contract must expressly specify WMFH treatment for the contractor’s work product.
- The contractual relationship must be governed by California law. (I don’t know whether any other states have similar laws.)