This post is based on a question that I answered on Avvo. The question illustrates a common misunderstanding concerning DBAs. (DBA is an abbreviation for “doing business as” – i.e., a fictitious business name.) The questioner did not realize that a DBA is not a legal entity!
Q. Can someone sue a DBA for breach of contract by the parent corporation? (more…)
This post addresses a question that arises frequently from founders of California limited liability companies that have been suspended: Can I walk away from my suspended LLC?
A suspended LLC is the result of a founder who has neglected to file Statements of Information with the Secretary of State, or file returns with or pay amounts due to the Franchise Tax Board, or both of the foregoing. Please see Why was My Corporation / LLC Suspended or Forfeited? (more…)
This post about entity conversion is an expanded version of an answer that I provided on Quora yesterday. (How do I convert a Delaware LLC to a California LLC?)
In my experience, entity conversion typically occurs for either, or both, of the following reasons.
- The need to convert a limited liability company (LLC) to a corporation to accept an investment from an institutional investor, such as a venture capitalist.
- The need to move an entity from one state to another. This typically occurs because the founder relocates, or because an investor prefers to invest in a Delaware corporation.
Several weeks ago, I wrote about how to issue LLC membership interests. in this post, I am addressing how a small corporation should issue corporate shares.
To start, one must examine the Certificate of Incorporation (Delaware) or Articles of Incorporation (California) to determine the maximum number of shares that may be issued. (To simplify this discussion, I will assume that only one class of common shares has been authorized.) A corporation may not issue more shares than are authorized. (more…)
When one forms a limited liability company (LLC) without a lawyer, there is a high likelihood that LLC membership interests will not be issued properly. This post describes how to issue LLC membership interests. It is adapted from a Quora question about LLC membership vesting that I answered.
Properly-Issued LLC Membership Interests
If LLC membership interests are issued properly, one would expect to see several things. (more…)
This post addresses how one may move an existing corporation to another state. It is based on a question that I answered on Quora (What state is best to incorporate an S-corp if you plan on moving away?).
I find that for most entrepreneurs, it makes sense to incorporate in the state where the entrepreneur resides. As I wrote in In which State should My Startup Incorporate?
Incorporate in the state in which you are doing business, unless there is a good reason to do otherwise [in which case the other state chosen probably will be Delaware]. (more…)
Prior to retaining me, one of my international clients used Harvard Business Services to form a Delaware corporation. During that process, HBS made two significant mistakes that I had to fix.
This post addresses a generalized version of a question that I answered on Quora concerning committees of corporate boards of directors. Q. Who appoints the members of a board committee?
A. Appointment of board committee members is governed by the corporation’s bylaws, or by applicable statutes if there are no bylaws. In my experience, bylaws (or statutes) state that a board committee is appointed by a majority of the board members. Committees are not appointed by the CEO or the Chair of the Board.