The High-touch Legal Services® Blog…for Startups!

© 2009-2016 Dana H. Shultz, Attorney at Law

Yes, a Stranger Can Cancel Your LLC!

Logo for Quora, where Dana Shultz answered a question about how a stranger can cancel your LLC or corporationThis post discusses how (amazingly!) an unauthorized stranger can cancel your LLC (limited liability company) or corporation. It is based on a Quora question that I answered. See What prevents someone from filing a restated certificate of incorporation for a Delaware corporation in which they are not authorized to do so?

Unfortunately, the ease with which entity-formation documents can be filed in the U.S. – while facilitating business startups – does allow unauthorized filing of such documents. This means that, whether accidentally or intentionally, a stranger can cancel your LLC (or corporation). (more…)

Limited Liability – a Definition

Logo for Quora, where Dana Shultz answered a question about the meaning of limited liabilityThis post on the meaning of the term limited liability is based on a Quora answer that I provided.

Please see What does limited liability and unlimited liability mean in case of companies? (more…)

What Does an Incorporator Do?

Logo for Quora, where Dana Shultz answered a question about the role of an incorporator in corporate formationThis post discusses the role of the incorporator when a corporation is formed and is based on a Quora answer that I provided. Please see When a third party files Articles of Incorporation as the incorporator for a company, what are the necessary steps to ensure that the company is legally released to the directors?

When I form a corporation for a client, most of the time the client is the incorporator (i.e., signs the Articles / Certificate of Incorporation).
(more…)

Corporate Personhood May Be More than a Legal Concept

Logo for WSJ.com, which published an article about corporate personhoodCorporate personhood – the idea that business entities may have some of the same legal rights and responsibilities as human beings – is a contentious legal concept. However, in his recent Mind and Matter column in the Wall Street Journal (Our Brains Say Corporations Are People, Too), neuroendocrinologist Robert Sapolsky cited studies showing that as far as the human brain is concerned, corporate personhood is not merely a legal concept.

Quoting a portion of that column (emphasis added): (more…)

What is an Operating Agreement?

The first page of an operating agreementI have used the term “operating agreement” in quite a few of this blog’s posts. However none of those posts explains in detail what a limited liability company (LLC) operating agreement must contain. This post provides that information.

The required contents of an operating agreement depend on the state in which the LLC is formed.

Operating Agreement – California

In California, where I practice, the definition of an operating agreement is set forth in Corporations Code Section 17701.02(s). (more…)

May a Minor Form an LLC?

Photo of cheering children, symbolizing "May a minor form an LLC?This post – asking “May a minor form an LLC?” – is a companion to May a Minor Form a Corporation?

I have been wanting to write this post for more than two years, ever  since writing the corporation post referenced above. However, as  explained further below, I felt uncomfortable doing so because I was  somewhat unsure of the answer. (more…)

Should I Form Separate Legal Entities for Different Lines of Business?

Sign for a forked road, symbolizing separate legal entitiesThis post discusses whether one should form separate legal entities (corporations or limited liability companies) for different lines of business.

I am writing this post because I have seen this type of question online many times. The most recent occurrence was on Avvo. See Should I set up a subdivision or have a LLC or corporation own another LLC? (more…)

How to Dissolve a Delaware Corporation or LLC

Seal of the Delaware Division of Corporations, symbolizing this post by Dana Shultz about how to dissolve a Delaware corporation or LLCThis post discusses how to dissolve a Delaware corporation or LLC (limited liability company) – i.e., how to terminate the entity’s existence.

For information about dissolving California entities, see How to Kill Your Company when that’s the Only Choice. (more…)

What are Repeated and Successive Transactions?

Seal of the California Secretary of State, with which a foreign entity must register once it enters into repeated and successive transactions within the stateIn Doing Business in CA? Be Sure to Register, I discussed when a foreign entity must register to do business in California. The test is whether the entity has transacted intrastate business, i.e., has engaged in repeated and successive transactions of business within the state. This post explores the meaning of “repeated and successive transactions“.

Repeated and Successive Transactions” Not Defined

The term “repeated and successive transactions” appears in Corporations Code Subsection 191(a). Unfortunately, that term is not defined. However, another portion of Section 191 provides a bit of help. (more…)