Je suis Charlie (French for “I am Charlie”).
This post supports freedom of expression, generally, and more particularly Parisian satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo, which was the victim of a massacre by Islamist radicals on January 7, 2015.
Being a bit of a francophone and francophile (see Paris: What a Difference a Decade Makes), and having relatives in Paris, I feel it is especially important to join millions of people throughout the world proclaiming that we value freedom of speech and that we will not be intimidated by thugs. (more…)
This post discusses whether one should form separate legal entities (corporations or limited liability companies) for different lines of business.
I am writing this post because I have seen this type of question online many times. The most recent occurrence was on Avvo. See Should I set up a subdivision or have a LLC or corporation own another LLC? (more…)
This post discusses how to dissolve a Delaware corporation or LLC (limited liability company) – i.e., how to terminate the entity’s existence.
For information about dissolving California entities, see How to Kill Your Company when that’s the Only Choice. (more…)
In Doing Business in CA? Be Sure to Register, I discussed when a foreign entity must register to do business in California. The test is whether the entity has transacted intrastate business, i.e., has engaged in repeated and successive transactions of business within the state. This post explores the meaning of “repeated and successive transactions“.
“Repeated and Successive Transactions” Not Defined
The term “repeated and successive transactions” appears in Corporations Code Subsection 191(a). Unfortunately, that term is not defined. However, another portion of Section 191 provides a bit of help. (more…)
This post about entering into a pre-incorporation contract is based on a question I answered on Avvo. See Can I legally speak as my company in things like terms & conditions if I have not officially registered the company yet?
The term “pre-incorporation contract” properly should apply only to corporations, because that is the only type of business entity that is incorporated. Other types of business entities, such as limited liability companies (LLCs), are formed, rather than incorporated. However, as is discussed below, a pre-formation contract (in California, at least) is treated like a pre-incorporation contract. See 02 Development, LLC v. 607 South Park, LLC . (more…)
In Commercial E-mail and CAN-SPAM: What You Need to Know, I discussed how the federal CAN-SPAM Act makes commercial email more truthful, more transparent and more avoidable. This post addresses how California law concerning fraudulent email supplements CAN-SPAM.
In particular, this post discusses preemption, by which, under certain circumstances, U.S. federal laws can invalidate state laws that address a given subject matter. (more…)
This post is about whether parties may enter into a perpetual contract (one that never ends).
It is adapted from my answer to a question on Quora. See Is it possible to structure a contract with no end date?
It turns out the the answer depends, to some extent, on which state’s law applies. (more…)
This post about limiting directors’ voting rights is based on my answer to a Quora question. (See Can a business owner draw up bylaws/articles of an organization that limit voting rights of directors?)
The incorporator or shareholders may approve a certificate of incorporation or bylaws that limit directors’ voting rights. (more…)